A simple stand-alone system for a stair core, which is usually required in a block of apartments where communal access is limited to the staircase only.
A protected lobby or corridor is required to have external vents at every floor. Whether the corridor needs to be protected will depend on the height of the building, the number of available exit routes, and the maximum distance of travel for escaping occupants
An atrium evacuation system is usually limited to manual control by Fire Service personnel in order to clear smoke from an open area within a building
Where a corridor cannot be vented externally, but the number of available exits and the travel distance still determines that smoke ventilation is required, one option is to install a naturally ventilated smoke shaft
Where space is at a premium, or where the height of the building will not permit natural means of smoke ventilation, it is possible to have a narrower shaft, but with mechanical extract fans drawing the smoke out of the building.
Most modern buildings with more than 3 storeys require a bespoke solution to the meet the smoke ventilation requirements.